Counter-strategies towards hate and disinformation

Counter-strategies towards hate and disinformation

A practical guide for NGOs, activists and volunteers about democratic limits of freedom of expression, countering hate speech, fake news and intimidation.

Download the Brochure here.

Freedom of expression is under threat, in various ways, across the European Union Member States. While legal frameworks are recognising and protecting freedom of expression, implementation falls short of transposing legal provisions into reality. Journalists and civil society leaders are among the most affected, experiencing various forms of hate speech, censorship, threats or self-censorship. The aim of this brochure is to provide an inventory of tools which can be used by journalists and civil society leaders facing such limitations to their freedom of speech.


The brochure is based on research conducted in 2018-2019, including desk research, interviews, focus groups and a questionnaire. The way the brochure is structured reflects what has been learned throughout the project. The included tools have been harvested through the research process as well as through organising a series of three webinars with experts and associations addressing the current limitations to freedom of expression.


Each tool presented in this brochure has been reviewed by the authors and is presented in a way that connects it to specific experiences with limitations to freedom of expressions lived by civil society leaders and practitioners in EU Member States. At the end, we present several recommendations for the European Union institutions, primarily the European Commission, as well as for the Member States, for ensuring a better protection of the freedom of expression within the borders of the EU.